In 1998, HDTV sets were made available for the first time lớn American consumers. The pictures were stunning, as were the prices—$5,000 to $15,000 on average. 

Fast-forward 21 years & the average HDTV costs less than $500. What changed?

An oversimplified answer to that question would be supply and demvà.

Bạn đang xem: Law of supply and demand definition

21 years ago, nobody was mass-producing HDTVs. The first TVs that were available to lớn the public carried a huge price tag because the components the manufacturers needed were more expensive than anticipated. So it was hard lớn estimate how much it would cost khổng lồ make them & how much to charge lớn sell them.

Panasonic released a limited supply of mass-produced sets to a couple of stores on the west coast. One of those stores, Dow Stereo/Video in San Diego, reported that 15,000 people visited the store on the first weekkết thúc. Dow’s inventory of 30 sets quickly sold out.

Most of those 15,000 people were curious khổng lồ see HDTV và didn’t intover khổng lồ purchase a set. However, the fact that those first 30 HDTV sets sold out so quickly at a price of $5,500, plus the $1,700 that was charged for the set top box that was required to receive sầu digital signals, indicated that there was some demvà.

As your business seeks khổng lồ determine the right price point for products và the amount needed to satisfy dem&, supply & demvà graphs can help. Read more about how this economic principle works.

Supply và demand explained

What is supply and demand? Simply defined, supply và demvà says that prices are low when there are plenty of products available for purchase. When supplies are scarce, prices are driven up, & dem& decreases.

So the law of supply & demand can be summed up as the relationship between dem& for a product or service, the supply of that product or service, & the price that consumers are willing to pay.

What is a dem& curve?

To understvà what a dem& curve sầu is, you’ll need to lớn underst& the law of demand. 

Demvà explains how a market is driven by consumers, who base their decisions mainly on how much money they make & whether they can find a similar sản phẩm at a lower price. At lower prices, consumers purchase more products. When the price increases, the expectation is that consumers will purchase fewer items or will seek out similar, less expensive sầu products as a substitute.

In 1998, the HDTV supply was very limited. The dem& was also limited as it was mostly driven by early adopters who had the means khổng lồ pay thousands of dollars for a home page entertainment system. However, because the limited supply sold out quickly, more manufacturers were eager to produce their own versions of HDTVs to try to lớn grab a share of the market. More hàng hóa eventually led to lower prices and higher consumer dem&.

So what does a demand curve sầu illustrate? A demvà curve is the visual representation of the law of demand. The following example is an oversimplification of the relationship between the supply, dem&, và the price of the first HDTVs in 1998.


Demand curve sầu example: In this example, a store was able to lớn sell 30 HDTVs in a week at a price of $5,500. In an effort to sell more sets the next week, the store offered a $500 discount & was able khổng lồ sell 60 sets.

What is a supply curve?

If demvà is driven by consumers, then the law of supply is driven by manufacturers và sellers và their desire to make money. The supply is the amount of hàng hóa that manufacturers are willing to make available to lớn sellers, & the amount that sellers are willing khổng lồ make available lớn the consumer at a particular price during a specified time frame. 

Today, you can buy larger flatscreen TVs with superior picture chất lượng than those from 1998 for approximately $500 or less. This is possible because there are more players in the game, production costs have come down, và manufacturing is more efficient. These circumstances have sầu made it much easier to lớn get more sản phẩm khổng lồ the consumer.

Suppliers have sầu khổng lồ be careful not to lớn supply too much hàng hóa so the market does not become saturated. As prices go down, that cuts inkhổng lồ profits. Also, lower prices can have sầu a negative sầu impact as consumers perceive sầu less expensive items as being cheaply made & of low quality.

The supply curve sầu is the visual representation of the law of supply. The following supply curve graph tracks the relationship between supply, demand, and the price of modern-day HDTVs.

Xem thêm: Bà Bầu Ngồi Nhiều Có Sao Không? 8 Tư Thế Ngồi Của Bà Bầu Khiến Thai Nhi Ngộp Thở


Supply curve example: In this example, 50-inch HDTVs are being sold for $475. As demvà increases for these particular models, the manufacturer supplies more to the seller to meet the demvà. The seller increases the price khổng lồ $500 lớn make more money while demvà remains high. When prices are raised again, the demand will cấp độ off và may start to lớn wane, leading to lớn a supply surplus.

Supply và dem& equilibrium

When we put the demand và supply graphs together, the curves will intersect. This intersection is used khổng lồ determine the equilibrium price. The equilibrium price represents the point where the supply of a hàng hóa is equal lớn the dem& for that sản phẩm.

The example supply & dem& equilibrium graph below identifies the price point where hàng hóa supply and the price consumers are willing khổng lồ pay are equal, keeping supply & demand steady.


Supply curve sầu example: In this example, the lines from the supply curve sầu và the demvà curve indicate that the equilibrium price for 50-inch HDTVs is $500. Prices too high above sầu $500 can decrease dem& & lead khổng lồ a hàng hóa surplus. Prices too far below $500 can increase dem& và lead to lớn a hàng hóa shortage.

You want to keep your hàng hóa supply và price points as cthua trận to lớn the equilibrium as possible khổng lồ avoid a surplus or shortage of goods. 

A surplus occurs when the price is set too high. This cuts into lớn profits as dem& decreases và consumers stop buying your hàng hóa. Some people will look for substitutes or cheaper alternatives to your product or just stop buying them completely. Sellers try lớn eliminate the surplus by reducing prices lớn entice consumers khổng lồ start buying again.

A shortage can occur when demand outpaces supply, which occurs when the price is mix too low. Manufacturers may have a hard time producing enough product to lớn keep up with demand. However, a shortage will drive up the price as consumers compete to lớn buy the hàng hóa. Sometimes manufacturers will deliberately hold baông chồng the sản phẩm to lớn create dem& so prices can be raised.

Price elasticity

Not all products behave sầu the same way to lớn supply & dem& fluctuations. Some products are more sensitive sầu to lớn price changes than others.

For example, everytoàn thân needs lớn eat to lớn live. An early freeze or drought conditions might drive up food prices, but people are still going khổng lồ buy food. They may not buy as much as they normally would, or they might opt for cheaper, lower chất lượng alternatives, but they are still going to buy groceries.

On the other hvà, if the cost of the components needed khổng lồ make HDTVs rises & causes TV prices lớn rise beyond what people are willing to lớn pay, chances are they won’t be running out lớn buy a new TV.

The effect that demvà has on the set price is known as the product’s price elasticity. If a product’s change in price causes substantial changes in demand and supply, that product is elastic. If a product’s price changes don’t have that much of an effect on dem&, that sản phẩm is known as inelastic.

In our examples above sầu, essential live-sustaining foods are inelastic because people have khổng lồ eat if they want to stay alive sầu. They may skip the candy & cookies, but they will always buy the items they need lớn live.

When the price of luxury or nonessential items such as HDTVs rise too much, it has a big effect on the demand as consumers decide lớn wait lớn buy a new phối or decide not lớn buy a new TV at all. Home electronics are nice lớn have sầu, but they are very elastic products because we don’t need lớn buy them, & it’s very likely that nobody has died yet from not watching enough TV.

Get started on a supply & demvà graph

Product prices are determined by consumer demand & the amount of goods suppliers are willing lớn make available. Where the two curves meet helps you khổng lồ determine the equilibrium price that balances the supply và demvà. Use lớn make supply và demand graphs so you can make better pricing decisions faster.

Xem thêm: What Is A Proof Of Address Là Gì, Hỏi Về Proof Of Address Khi Đổi Tên Trong Paypal

When you understvà the relationship between the dem&, supply, và equilibrium price, you can more effectively analyze the market you work in or want to break into lớn. The analysis helps you to allocate resources & be more cost-effective sầu.